Skip to content

Integrated Bot Mode

To develop a bot or an assistant with Tock, you can also use the so called Integrated mode developed in Kotlin. You get then direct access to the MongoDb database.

This mode is not available in the demo platform - you need to install the Tock docker images on your own servers.

Sample Project

A sample bot using Tock Integrated mode is provided:

It uses Open Data SNCF API (french trainlines itineraries).

This is a good starting point, since it also includes a very simple NLP model.

Of course, as the model is not big, the quality of the bot is low, but still it’s enough to demonstrate the use of the toolkit.

Docker Images

Docker images in Docker Hub.

The source code used to build these images, as well as the docker-compose files used to start the Tock toolkit, are available in the GitHub repository

Start the NLP stack

    #get the last docker-compose file
    curl -o docker-compose.yml
    #get the script to start mongo in replicaset mode
    mkdir -p scripts && curl -o scripts/ && chmod +x scripts/
    #get the last tag
    curl -o .env
    #launch the stack
    docker-compose up

The admin webapp is now available on port 80: http://localhost

The default login is and the password is password.

### Sample bot based on Open Data APIs

A docker image is available to launch it directly. The instructions are specified in the github project containing the docker images.

Develop a new Bot

Add the bot-toolkit Dependency

The bot-toolkit dependency is required:

With Maven:


With Gradle:

      compile 'ai.tock:bot-toolkit:23.9.2'

A Bot is a Set of Stories

This is how the open data bot is defined:

val openBot = bot(
        stories =
        hello = greetings

This bot has an unique identifier (required - “bot_open_data”) and a list of “Story”.

A Story is a functional subset that has a main intention and, optionally, one or more so-called “secondary” intentions.

Here the bot defines 4 Stories, greetings, departures, arrivals and search. Greetings is also set (hello = greetings) as the default story used for a new dialog.

A Simple Story

How do you define a story? Here is a first simplified version of the story greetings:

val greetings = story("greetings") { 
        send("Welcome to the Tock Open Data Bot! :)")
        end("This is a Tock framework demonstration bot:")

Note that in the body of the function, this has a BotBus type. From which you can interact with the user, and which also allows you to access to all available contextual elements.

When the intention greetings will be detected by the NLP model, the function above will be called by the Tock framework.

The bot sends successively a first response sentence (bus.send()), then a second one indicating that it is the last sentence of his answer using a bus.end().

Here is the full version of greetings:

val greetings = story("greetings") { 
    //cleanup state

    send("Welcome to the Tock Open Data Bot! :)")
    send("This is a Tock framework demonstration bot:")

    withMessenger {
                "The bot is very limited, but ask him a route or the next departures from a station in France, and see the result! :)",
                postbackButton("Itineraries", search),
                postbackButton("Departures", Departures),
                postbackButton("Arrivals", Arrivals)
    withGoogleAssistant {
                "The bot is very limited, but ask him a route or the next departures from a station in France, and see the result! :)",


Two notions have been added:

  • resetDialogState() which cleanup the state (forgetting any previous context).

  • the withMessenger{} and withGoogleAssistant{} methods that define specific responses for each connector - Here it’s a text with buttons for Messenger, and a text with suggestions for Google Assistant.

Start and Connect the Bot

To start the bot, simply add the following call to your main function:


where the openBot variable is the bot you originally defined.

When the bot is started, you also need to specify which connectors are used in the web administration interface: Configuration -> Bot Configurations -> Create a new configuration

See Connectors page for the list of available connectors.

Import configuration (dumps)

It is possible to export various types of configurations from Tock Studio, then import them programmatically at bot startup.

Once the dump files exported to the bot classpath, you can use one or more of the following functions from the bot main:

  • importApplicationDump: import an application from an application dump (Tock Studio > Settings > Applications). Note that import is skipped when application exists already.
  • importNlpDump: import a NLP model (intents, sentences, entities) from a NLP dump (Tock Studio > Settings > Applications).
  • importI18nDump: import labels (aka i18n) from a labels dump (Tock Studio > Stories & Answers > Answers).


fun main(args: Array<String>) {


  // Import application

  // Import NLP model (intents, sentences, entities...)

  // Import story labels (aka i18n)

Advanced options

Of course, the StoryHandler of greetings does not depend on the context: the answer is always the same.

Secondary Intentions

Here is the beginning of the definition of the search story :

val search = storyDef<SearchDef>(
        otherStarterIntents = setOf(indicate_origin),
        secondaryIntents = setOf(indicate_location)) {

The story search defines a secondary starter intent (indicate_origin) and a simple secondary intent (indicate_location).

A secondary starter intent is similar in every respect to the main intent: as soon as the intent is detected, if the current story does not contain indicate_origin as secondary intent, the story search is called.

For a classic secondary intent, on the other hand, the story will be executed only if the current story of the context is already the search story. Different stories can therefore share the same secondary intents.

Handle Entities

To retrieve entity values, it is good practice to define Kotlin extensions. For example here is the code used to retrieve the destination entity:

val destinationEntity = openBot.entity("location", "destination") 

var BotBus.destination: Place?
    get() = place(destinationEntity)
    set(value) = setPlace(destinationEntity, value)
private fun Entity): Place? = entityValue(entity, ::placeValue)?.place

private fun BotBus.setPlace(entity: Entity, place: Place?) = changeEntityValue(entity, place?.let { PlaceValue(place) })

An entity of type “location” and role “destination” is created. There is a corresponding entity in the NLP model.

A variable destination is defined, which will simplify the handling of this entity in the conversational code. This variable contains the current value of the destination in the user context.

Here’s a full version of the search story that uses destination:

val search = storyDef<SearchDef>(
        setOf(indicate_location)) {

        //check mandatory entities
        when {
            destination == null -> end("For which destination?")
            origin == null -> end("For which origin?")
            departureDate == null -> end("When?")

If there is no value in the current context for the destination, the bot asks to specify the destination and stays there. Same behaviour for the origin or date of departure.

If the 3 required values are specified, then the real answer developed in the SearchDef class is used.

Here is the full version of this first part of the code:

val search = storyDef<SearchDef>(
        setOf(indicate_location)) {

        //handle generic location intent
        if (isIntent(indicate_location) && location != null) {
            if (destination == null || origin != null) {
                destination = returnsAndRemoveLocation()
            } else {
                origin = returnsAndRemoveLocation()
        //check mandatory entities
        when {
            destination == null -> end("For which destination?")
            origin == null -> end("For which origin?")
            departureDate == null -> end("When?")

In the case where the detected intention is indicate_location, we do not know if the locality represents the origin or the destination.

A simple rule is then used: If there is already in the context an origin and no destination, the new locality is actually the destination. Otherwise, it is the origin.


In the search story above, you may have noted the generic SearchDef typing. Here is the code of this class:

class SearchDef(bus: BotBus) : HandlerDef<SearchConnector>(bus) {
    private val d: Place = bus.destination!!
    private val o: Place = bus.origin!!
    private val date: LocalDateTime = bus.departureDate!!

    override fun answer() {
        send("From {0} to {1}", o, d)
        send("Departure on {0}", date by datetimeFormat)
        val journeys = SncfOpenDataClient.journey(o, d, date)
        if (journeys.isEmpty()) {
            end("Sorry, no routes found :(")
        } else {
            send("Here is the first proposal:")

SearchDef extends HandlerDef which is an alias of a Tock framework class.

It is usually here that the code of complex stories is defined.

The code contains an additional abstraction: SearchConnector.

SearchConnector is the class that defines the behavior specific to each connector, and the annotations @GAHandler(GASearchConnector::class) and @MessengerHandler(MessengerSearchConnector::class) indicate the corresponding implementations for the different supported connectors (respectively Google Assistant and Messenger).  

What would happen there is no connector for Google Assistant for example, and if a call from Google Assistant is answered?

The connector?.sendFirstJourney(journeys.first()) method call would not send the final response, since connector would be null.


Here is a simplified version of SearchConnector :

sealed class SearchConnector(context: SearchDef) : ConnectorDef<SearchDef>(context) {

    fun Section.title(): CharSequence = i18n("{0} - {1}", from, to)

    fun sendFirstJourney(journey: Journey) = withMessage(sendFirstJourney(journey.publicTransportSections()))
    abstract fun sendFirstJourney(sections: List<Section>): ConnectorMessage


And its Messenger implementation:

class MessengerSearchConnector(context: SearchDef) : SearchConnector(context) {

    override fun sendFirstJourney(sections: List<Section>): ConnectorMessage =
       { section ->
                      with(section) {

The code specific to each connector is thus decoupled correctly. The code common to each connector is present in SearchConnector and the behavior specific to each connector is specified in the dedicated classes.


Sometimes you need to remember the stage at which the user is in the current story. For this, Tock provides the concept of StoryStep.

There are two types of StoryStep.


enum class MyStep : SimpleStoryStep { a, b }

val story = storyWithSteps<MyStep>("intent") {
    if(step == a) {
        // ...
    } else if(step == b) {
        // ...
    } else {
        //default case

To modify the current step, two methods are available:

  • Manually change the step
val story = storyWithSteps<MyStep>("intent") {
    step = MyStep.a
    // the step will be persisted as long as we stay in this story
  • Use buttons or quick replies

More details on this topic here.

StorySteps with complex behavior

In more complex cases, we want to be able to define a behavior for each step.

enum class MySteps : StoryStep<MyHandlerDef> {

    //no specific behaviour

    select {

        // "select" step will be automatically selected if the select sub-intention is detected
        override val intent: IntentAware? =

        override fun answer(): MyHandlerDef.() -> Any? = {
            end("I don't know yet how to select something")

    disruption {
        override fun answer(): ScoreboardDef.() -> Any? = {
            end("some perturbation")

More configuration options are available. Check out the description of StoryStep.

Postback buttons & quick replies

Messenger provides this type of button, as most connectors with GUI.

With Tock, you can easily define the action performed after clicking on these buttons.

In the following example, the button will redirect to the “search” intent:

            "The bot is very limited! Only itineraries are supported :)",
            postbackButton("Itineraries", search)

It is also possible to define a * StoryStep * and dedicated parameters:

//to define parameters, just extend the ParameterKey interface
enum class ChoiceParameter : ParameterKey {
    nextResultDate, nextResultOrigin

            "The bot is very limited! Only itineraries are supported :)",
                intent = search, 
                //if no step is specified, the current step is used
                step = MyStep.a, 
                parameters =  
                    //this parameter is stored as a string (hooks are used)
                    nextResultDate[nextDate] + 
                    //this parameter is stored in json (parentheses are used)

To retrieve the parameters of the button that was clicked:

    val isClick = isChoiceAction()
    val nextDate = choice(nextResultDate)
    val nextOrigin : Locality = action.jsonChoice(nextResultOrigin)